Causes of the Anglo-Nepal War

Objective: To find out various causes why the Anglo-Nepal war was fought.


After the unification campaign of Prithvi Narayan Shah, several events took a turn and the war was fought between Nepal and East India Company in the year 1871-1873 B.S. (1814-1816 A.D.). The major reasons why the war broke out are the following ones:

  1. Cool climate of Nepal:

The British came from a cool place thus it was difficult to rule in a hot place like India. They were in search of cool places like Kumaun, Gadhwal, Nainital, Simla, Dehradun, Darjeeling, etc. Thus, they raised war against Nepal to get such cool places for their comfort.

2. Natural resources of Nepal:

Nepal was considered a nation with dense forests where varieties of wood were found in large quantities. British Indians were attracted by the natural resources of Nepal like forests, mines, and water. They wanted to use wood from the forest of Nepal to build their ships. They also wanted our other natural resources for their development which was strongly denied by the then government of Nepal. Thus, the war broke out between Nepal and British India in the year 1871 B.S. (1814 A.D.)

3. Trade:

British India wanted to establish trade not only in India and Nepal but also in Tibet via Nepal. Nepalese government didn’t allow any foreign traders in their land. Dissatisfied with the decision of the Nepalese government, British India declared war in the year 1871 B.S. (1814 A.D.)

4. The expansionist policy of British India and Nepal:

After the unification campaign, the territory of Nepal was largely extended. Several border disputes, unclear border demarcation and both nations wanting to expand their territory far and wide resulted in the collision of each other and the war broke out in the year 1871 B.S. (1814 A.D.)

5. Attitude of the defeated kings of Baise-Chaubise States:

The defeated kings of these small kingdoms had fled to India. They started provoking British India to attack Nepal so that they could regain the power and the kingship of these states. British India also assured them to provide the kingship after the victory. So, the attitude of these kings created hostility between the two nations which led to the outburst of the Anglo-Nepal war in the year 1871 B.S. (1814 A.D.)

6. Previous failure missions of British India in Nepal:

The East India Company wanted to establish a trade link with Tibet via Nepal which failed. They were not happy with the expansion of Nepal too. Captain Kinlock who led a Military expedition against Nepal also failed in his mission. They wanted to take revenge on Nepal so; they raised war against Nepal in the year 1871 B.S. (1814 A.D.)

7. Military activities in Nepal:

When Bhimsen Thapa strengthened the military in Nepal, it was a great threat to British India. They didn’t want a strong military force in Nepal which could create problems for their empire. In order to control such military activities in Nepal and maintain power supremacy, they attacked Nepal in the year 1871 B.S. (1814 A.D.)

8. Anti-British policy of Nepal:

Prithvi Narayan Shah expelled the British Capuchin Missionaries from Kathmandu which had annoyed the British. Bhimsen Thapa strongly opposed the British imperialists in Asia and appealed, “Let’s all Asian nations be united and kick these British Jackals out of our continent.” Nepal also rejected any kind of trade and friendly relations with the British. This anti-British policy of Nepal resulted in Anglo-Nepal war in the year 1871 B.S. (1814 A.D.)

9. The Immediate Cause:

The British were in search of a small pretext to raise war against Nepal. The border disputes in Butwal and Shivraj were the main cause. Both British India and Nepal claimed sovereignty over these states. Previously, the Nawab of Abadh had annexed these two states but the king of Palpa used to pay an annual tax to Nawab and had been enjoying the kingship of the states. Later, Palpa was unified under greater Nepal and Abadh by the British. The annual tax was not paid by the Nepal government. So, in the name of possession over Butwal and Shivraj, British India sent an ultimatum of 25 days which was strongly denied by the court of Nepal. Governor-General Lord Hastings, dissatisfied with the decision of Bhimsen Thapa, declared war against Nepal on 1st November 1814 A.D. (1871 B.S.), and the war broke out.

Group Activities:

  1. Nepalese were against British Imperialism and didn’t want any relation with them. Why?
  2. Discuss in your group and list out all the causes of the Anglo-Nepal war.
  3. Explain the immediate cause of the Anglo-Nepal war.
  4. The military activities and expansionist policy of Nepal led to the Anglo-Nepal war. Discuss in your group and justify the statement.

Presentation: All groups present their works in 10 minutes.


  • Many Nepalese, even today, blame Bhimsen Thapa for unnecessary war with the British and the loss of good places in Nepal. What do you think? Give your critical opinion on it.

Source: History of Nepal by Pitamber Lal Yadav and Rishikesh Shah, causes of Anglo-Nepal war from the internet, teachers, parents, and friends

Presentation for the next day: Group A

  • A short skit on the immediate cause of the Anglo-Nepal War

The role played by Nepalese warriors in Anglo-Nepal War

Objective: To find out the role played by a few key people of Nepal during the Anglo-Nepal war.


The Nepalese Army was comparatively weaker in terms of weapons. There were about 12000 soldiers assigned to defend the territory of Nepal. They were neither well trained nor well equipped but their courage, bravery, and strong determination won many battles in different places.

Balabhadra Kunwar:

There is a place called Nalapani on the way to Mussoorie about 4 miles northeast of the present Deharadun. This place belonged to Nepal before the war. Balabhadra built a fort here at an altitude of 500-600 feet which was called the fort of Khalanga. He had a total strength of 700 soldiers including men, women, and children.

On the night before attacking the fort of Khalanga, Major General Sir Robert Rolls Gillespie sent a letter to Balabhadra Kunwar asking him to surrender. Balabhadra Kunwar had replied, “I am not in the habit of reading letters in the mid-nights, I will meet Gillespie soon.” He tore the letter without reading it.

The very next day, British troops attacked the fort with cannons. The Nepalese men and women counter-attacked with bullets, arrows rocks, and logs. Lieutenant Ellis was killed by a bullet fired from the Nepalese side. Even General Gillespie was shot dead while climbing the wall of the fort. The British had to bear a great loss (about 266 people were killed).

The British ran away to Deharadun. Balabhadra Kunwar sent a letter to Kathmandu requesting additional force but no help arrived from Kathmandu. A troop from Nahan who had come to protect Khalanga fort was blocked by the British troops on the way. The English troops attacked the fort of Khalanga for the second time after necessary preparation under the command of general Maubi. The Nepalese counter-attacked with logs and rocks. Even the British Captain Mensitart and Princep praised the bravery of Nepalese women in this war. They had even borne bullets on their chest trying to cover up the holes made by the cannonballs of the British. After the war, many of the Nepalese men, women, and children were found dead along with the broken walls.

At last, the British cut off the water supply to the fort. Thus, finding no way out, The Nepalese nearly 70 in number went to the nearest river with bare swords in their hands and quenched their thirst. Then they moved on to protect other forts at Jeetgadh. Before they moved on to another fort, Balabhadra had roared at them, “Go and occupy the fort, we have already deserted it.” When the British entered in to the fort, they found all dead bodies of women and children. They erected an inscription: “This is inscribed as a tribute and respect for our gallant adversary Balabhadra, commander of the fort and his brave Gurkhas.”

Amar Singh Thapa:

Badakazi Amar Singh Thapa was the son of Bagh Bhim Singh Thapa. Amar Singh Thapa got the ‘Marwat’ after his father was killed in the war of Palanchowk which would customarily award the post and salary of his father to him. Father of Bhimsen Thapa was also called Amar Singh Thapa but warrior Amar Singh Thapa was a different person. He had played an important role at the time of victory over Baise-Chaubise states. He had extended the western boundary of Nepal up to Sutlaj.

The whole authority of operation of war in the west was entrusted to Amar Singh Thapa at the time of Anglo-Nepal war. On the other side, Sir David Ochterlony was given the responsibility of operation of war from the British side. A year before the war, the sons of Amar Singh Rhapa and Sir David Ochterlony had struck on a friendly (Miteri) relation.

Amar Singh Thapa tried his level best to defend Nepalese territory in many places of western Nepal. As condition got worse and it went against Nepalese, Nepal had to sign an insulting Sugauli treaty with British people. The grief of this turned him in to an ascetic and breathed his last there.

Bhakti Thapa:

Chieftain (Sardar) Bhakti Thapa was Puber Thapa of Lamjung. He had fought against the Gorkha troops under the king of Lamjung, Kehari Narayan Shah. Later, he joined the Gorkha troops.

During the Anglo-Nepal War, he was in the command of Deuthal near Malaun. Bhakti Thapa was 70 years old when Malaun was attacked by the British force and he had to go and help Amar Singh Thapa. Later, Amar Singh Thapa sent him to recapture Surajgadh. The defense of the whole western part was at risk. In the meantime, Deuthal was captured by British. In order to recapture Deuthal, Bhakti Thapa attacked British with 2000 soldiers with scimitars, swords and Khukuris. A fierce war broke out between the two. Suddenly, a bullet seared his chest and he collapsed.

In this war, about 700 Nepalese soldiers were killed. General Ochterlony wrapped the corpse of Bhakti Thapa in a shawl and handed over to Amar Singh Thapa with due respect. By the end of this war, Nepalese troops appeared frustrated whereas British troops were jubilant.

Bam Shah:

Although many battles were won by British in the west, there were a few places where Nepalese had a complete hold. Bam Shah was appointed as the Governor of Kumaun by Prime Minister Bhimsen Thapa. His administrative performance even amazed the British people. He had shown a great skill in the operation of war. However, he got depressed by the propaganda that Nepal was losing everywhere. British Commander Colonel Edward Gardener tried to allure him but in vain. Finally, Bam Shah had to surrender and promised to quite the whole territory lying to the west of Mahakali.

Ranbir Singh Thapa:

Ranbir Singh Thapa was the youngest brother of Bhimsen Thapa. During the Anglo-Nepal War, he was deputed to Makwanpur to command the troops. His troops badly defeated the British troops in the war. The Nepalese troops defeated Major General Morley who had planned to attack Kathmandu from 3 sides. Nepalese troops were able to recapture some of the places of British territory in terai. After the war he became the administrator of Palpa and then the General of Kalibaksha Sabuj Battalions. After some time, he retired as an ascetic and got famous as Swami Abhayananda.

Ujir (Wajir) Singh Thapa:

After the death of General Amar Singh Thapa, father of Bhimsen Thapa, his grandson Ujir Singh Thapa succeeded him as the Governor of Palpa. During Anglo-Nepal War, his force defeated the British force under the command of General Wood. Later, General Wood never tried to invade Nepal through this route rather adopted defensive policy. He exhibited praiseworthy bravery in the battlefield which will be ever remembered in the history of Nepal.

Group Activities:

  1. Discuss in your group and write a short story based on the Nalapani War.
  2. Explain the heroic bravery exhibited by Bhakti Thapa at the age of 70.
  3. Evaluate the bravery of Nepalese troops during Anglo-Nepal war.
  4. Was there any possibility to avoid Anglo-Nepal war? If yes, list out the possibilities with your logic. If not, why? Explain.

Presentation: All groups present their works in 10 minutes.


  • War is not the solution of any dispute. Explain.

Source: History of Nepal by Pitamber Lal Yadav and Rishikesh Shah, bravery exhibited by Nepalese in Anglo-Nepal war from the internet, teachers, parents and friends

Presentation for the next day: Group B

  • A short skit on Nalapani or Deuthal war

Consequences of the Anglo-Nepal War

Objective : To find out the results of Anglo-Nepal War.


The Anglo-Nepal War lasted for two years i.e. 1814-1816 A.D. (1871-1873 B.S.) Many Nepalese and British lost their lives. Nepalese troops had to lose many battles and lose control over many places. Finally, Nepal had no choice but to sign an insulting and humiliating treaty with British India. Though it was called as a peace treaty, all provisions were against Nepal. This peace treaty draft had 9 articles. The Royal Preceptor (Rajguru) Gajaraj Mishra was sent to discuss the peace proposal with Bradshaw (the British representative).

With the objectionable demands of Bradshaw, the peace proposal failed and British planned to attack Kathmandu. Rajguru Gajaraj Mishra and Chandra Sekhar Upadhyay were again sent to continue peace talk with the British. This time, the British had a fresh proposal on this issue. The new proposal was sent to Kathmandu court which was finally agreed after a serious discussion. This treaty brought Anglo-Nepal war to an end. This treaty is famous as Sugauli Treaty because it was signed in the place called Sugauli. The treaty had 9 articles:

  1. There shall be perpetual peace between the East India Company and the King of Nepal.
  2. Nepal lost a major portion of her territory in the terai lying in between Mechi and Mahakali.
  3. All the disputed territories, prior to war, were ceded to British.
  4. The East India Company would pay a pension of Rs. 2 lakh a year to the lords or chiefs of the territories ceded to the East India Company.
  5. Nepal would renounce her claims to the places lying to the west of Mahakali.
  6. Nepal would not make any claim from the king of Sikkim. In case of any dispute between Nepal and Sikkim, the East India Company would settle the dispute as arbitrator.
  7. The British got extraterritorial right of adjoining the dispute between Nepal and Tibet.
  8. The British got the right to control Nepalese foreign policy.
  9. The British succeeded in deputing their resident in Kathmandu.

Some of the major results of Anglo-Nepal War:

  • The war ended with signing of an insulting and imposed Sugauli Treaty.
  • Nepal had to give one-third of its territory to East India Company.
  • Nepal lost cool and beautiful places like Kumaun, Gadhwal, Nainital, Darjeeling etc.
  • Though it was stated that the Governor General in India would not interfere with the internal affairs of Nepal, the ambassadors continued to do so.
  • It started conspiracy within the palace of Nepal. A pro-British group was created and anti-British group was overthrown in Nepal.
  • The British got free trade facilities in Nepal.
  • It led to the downfall of Bhimsen Thapa.
  • The trend of recruiting the Nepalese youths to the British army started.

Group Activities:

  1. Discuss in your group and explain the reasons why Nepal had to sign such an insulting and humiliating treaty with British India.
  2. List out the places that Nepal lost after Anglo-Nepal war.
  3. Draw an outline map of Greater Nepal and insert the places which we lost in Anglo-Nepal war.
  4. Analyse all 9 articles of Sugauli treaty and give your critical comment on it.

Presentation: All groups present their works in 10 minutes.


  • The rulers who agreed on the imposed Sugauli Treaty were to be blamed for the huge loss of Nepalese territory. Give your critical opinion on it.

Source: History of Nepal by Pitamber Lal Yadav and Rishikesh Shah, consequences of Anglo-Nepal war from the internet, Documentary on Greater Nepal, teachers, parents and friends

Presentation for the next day: Group C

  • A short skit on peace talk and signing of Sugauli Treaty


Rise of Jung Bahadur and Establishment of Rana Rule in Nepal

Objective:   To find out the role of Jung Bahadur to establish the Rana Regime in Nepal.


Relationship of Jung Bahadur with Royal Family and his Nature:

The family of Jung Bahadur was in touch with the royal palace from the early days. His grandfather, Ranjeet Kunwar had been killed in the battle of Kangada. His father, Balnarsingh Kunwar was the bodyguard of King Rana Bahadur Shah. Balnarsingh Kunwar had killed Sher Bahadur Shah, the murderer of Rana Bahadur Shah.

When Jung Bahadur was 11 years, his father Balnarsingh Kunwar was appointed as an officer of Dhankuta. He accompanied his father to Dhankuta. He learned wrestling, archery, horse riding; shooting, etc. while his father was posted to Dadeldhura and Jumla, Jung Bahadur also went there with him. He got the post of lieutenant while living in Jumla. Both father and son were dismissed from their posts at the downfall of Bhimsen Thapa. But, during a hunting trip, he impressed Rajendra Bikram Shah by catching an elephant so, he was made a captain. He also worked as the bodyguard of Surendra Bikram Shah. His relationship with the palace grew stronger when he murdered Mathbar Singh Thapa.


Kot Massacre:

The massacre that took place on the night of 2nd Aswin 1903 B.S. is called Kot Massacre. Some historians are of the opinion that this massacre was a pre-planned plot conspired by Jung Bahadur Rana while some other believe it was an inevitable event of human destruction which Jung Bahadur made it in his favor. However, this event fuelled by Queen Rajya Laxmi’s insistence of finding the assassin of her most trusted person, Gagan Singh Khabas. At this mass killing event, the Prime-minister, Chautariya Fatte Jung and General Abhiman Singhand many other high officials of the court were mercilessly killed at the Kot, Hanumandhoka. Jung Bahadur was appointed as Commander-in-Chief after the Kot Massacre.

Bhandarkhal Massacre:

Rajya Laxmi had a bad intention appointing Jung Bahadur as Commander-in-Chief. She wanted to get the help of Jung Bahadur in fulfilling her mission of appointing Ranendra the Crown Prince instead of Surendra, the rightful heir but Jung Bahadur was against this illegal act. Thus, she made a plan to kill Jung Bahadur with the help of priests, Basnyat family and the family of Gagan Singh Khabas. But, the conspiracy was revealed. So, Jung Bahadur along with his brothers took a troop of 6 battalions to Bhandarkhal Garden of Basantapur and murdered all his opponents. Altogether 23 people were killed including Birdhoj Basnyat, Man Singh Basnyat, and many other Basnyats on 12th Kartik 1903 B.S. Jung Bahadur sent Queen Rajya Laxmi to Kashi (Benaras) after putting allegation of murder and other conspiracies and crimes on her. Rajendra Bikram Shah, appointing Jung Bahadur the Prime Minister, went to Kashi with his queen.

Alau Massacre:

Rajendra Bikram, being blind in his love went to Kashi but he realized this mistake after he reached there. Thus, he was now again planning to regain his power. The people sent by Rajendra Bikram to kill Jung Bahadur were caught with proofs. Jung Bahadur dethroned Rajendra Bikram and dethroned Surendra Bikram. After this incident, furious Rajendra formed a small troop and left Benaras to declare war against Jung Bahadur. In 1904 B.S., the old Gorkha Battalion subordinated by Kanak Singh Shah from Kathmandu attacked the soldiers of Rajendra Bikram at Alau near Birgunj and defeated them badly. About 200 soldiers were killed and the rest ran away owing to fear of death. Rajendra Bikram was put under arrest and brought to Kathmandu. He was imprisoned in Bhaktapur Palace where he died in 1938 B.S.

This is how, Jung Bahadur came in touch with Royal Family as bodyguard of Surendra, appointed as commander-in-chief after Kot Massacre, became Prime Minister after Bhandarkhal massacre and then all in all after Alau Massacre. He began his direct rule and autocratic Rana Rule began in Nepal.


Group Activities:

  1. Explain how Jung Bahadur came in touch with Royal Family.
  2. Explain Kot Massacre.
  3. Explain Bhandarkhal Massacre.
  4. Explain Alau Massacre.

Presentation: All groups present their works in 10 minutes.


  • “An ordinary person can become a great ruler of a nation.” Prove the statement citing the example of Jung Bahadur.

Source: History of Nepal by Pitamber Lal Yadav and Rishikesh Shah, incidents leading to Rana rule in Nepal from the internet, Historical movie- Basanti, teachers, parents and friends

Presentation for the next day: A short skit on Kot/Bhandarkhal/Alau Massacre

Social, Economic and Administrative Achievements during Rana Rule 

Objective : To find out the achievements during Rana rule.


Social Achievements:

The Nepali society during the Rana regime was conservative and based on traditional perversions. Many aspects of society were slowly changed. The Ranas tried to bring several reforms if not for ordinary citizens but for themselves. Even then, custom of polygamy, mismatching, child marriage, untouchability and prejudice still existed. Some of the social reforms during Rana rule are as follow:

  1. Jung Bahadur Rana enforced Civil Law (Muluki Ain) in 1910 B.S. in the name of King Surendra. So, there was uniformity in law within the country.
  2. Jung Bahadur and Bir Shumsher both discouraged Sati system. However, it was abolished by Chandra Shumsher in the year 1977 B.S.
  3. Chandra Shumsher abolished slavery system in the year 1981 B.S. He spent 3.77 million rupees from Pashupati trust to free the slaves. Thus, they were called Shiva Bhakta (Devotees of Lord Shiva). They were rehabilitated in Amlekhgunj.
  4. Bir Shumsher built Bir Hospital and Birdhara.
  5. Chandra Shumsher established Army Hospital, Tokha Health Center and Pharping Hydro-electricity Projects (the first hydro-power station in Nepal)
  6. Jung Bahadur established Durbar School on the premises of Thapathali Palace to impart English education to his family. Later, Bir Shumsher shifted it to the present place in front of Rani Pokhari.
  7. Dev Shumsher started the publication of Gorkhapatra and opened free primary schools.
  8. Chandra Shumsher opened around 12 schools in the country and Tri-Chandra College.
  9. Juddha Shumsher also established many schools around the country and established S.L.C. Board for Nepal.
  10. Padhma Shumsher established Padhma Kanya School and college to encourage women education.
  11. Dev Shumsher sent 8 Nepalese students to Japan for higher studies.

Economic Achievements:

  1. Jung Bahadur started tea cultivation in Illam.
  2. Chandra Shumsher constructed Chandra Canal from Trijuga River in Saptari and Juddha Shumsher constructed Juddha Canal from Manusmara River in Rautahat.
  3. Chandra Shumsher established 500 kw Pharping Hydro-electricity Station and Juddha Shumsher established 900 kw Sundarijal Hydro Power Station.
  4. Nepal Bank Limited, Biratnagar Jute Mills and Juddha Match Factory were other economic achievements of Rana Rule.
  5. Wood, leather, herbs and food grains were exported from Nepal and Nepal was in trade surplus. Nepalese raw materials were exported to Europe via Kolkata port in India.
  6. Instead of conserving the forest resources, Rana Prime-ministers started selling timber, herbs and other forest products which led to deforestation.

Administrative Achievements

  1. Jung Bahadur established the administrative mechanism with executive power to the Prime Minister.
  2. Jung Bahadur established Muluki Adda for daily administrative work, Jungi Adda for army administration, Ainkhana and Kaushal Adda for drafting laws, Mulukikhana for collecting tax and revenues etc.
  3. Bir Shumsher introduced “Daudaha System” to check corruption, leakage of revenues in different parts and to remove flaws in administrative system.
  4. Bir Shumsher divided Nepal in to 35 districts which continued till 2018 B.S.
  5. Dev Shumsher wanted to establish a system of democracy under constitutional monarchy.
  6. Chandra Shumsher established Khadga Nishana Adda and Bijuli Goshwara Adda.
  7. Bhim Shumsher started giving Saturday a weekly holiday.
  8. Juddha Shumsher provided Pension for civil employees and Registrar’s Office to record the date of birth and death.
  9. Padhma Shumsher promulgated the first written constitution of Nepal called “Vaidhanik Kanoon 2004”

Group Activities:

  1. Explain the social achievements during Rana Rule.
  2. Explain the economic achievements during Rana Rule.
  3. Explain the administrative achievements during Rana Rule.
  4. Industrial revolution took place in Nepal during Rana Rule. Critically analyze the statement.

Presentation: All groups present their works in 10 minutes.


  • The 104-year Rana Rule brought a number of reforms in Nepal but they were all directed towards their families. So, their downfall started. What is your opinion on this? What were causes for the downfall of Ranarchy in Nepal?

Source: History of Nepal by Pitamber Lal Yadav and Rishikesh Shah, achievements of 104 years rana Rule in Nepal from the internet, teachers, parents and friends

Presentation for the next day: A short presentation on achievements of 104 years Ranarchy (Social/Economic/Administrative)

Social Works of Rana Prime-Ministers

Picture required:

Photo of all Rana Prime-ministers

Objective: To find out the social reforms of Ranas


Ranarchy began in Nepal after the Kot, Bhandarkhal and Alau Massacres. Jung Bahadur centralized all powers in his hands and the king became the nominal head of the country. All jigh posts, positions and state privileges were directed towards Ranas only. Thus, a family rule (autocratic rule) began in Nepal in the year 1903 B.S. and remained for 104 years. The people were deprived of their fundamental rights and other privileges from the state, the country was isolated from the outside world and the people were kept in darkness.


Due to the development brought in other countries and the pressure from the people, they brought some changes in the society. Altogether 9 Rana Prime-Ministers roled over Nepal. The social reforms made by Ranas are given below:

Rana Prime-ministers Social Reforms
Jung Bahadur Rana He introduced English Education, Press, Muluki Ain and discouraged Sati and Slavery systems.
Ranoddip Singh He published a Nepali Calendar, allocated money for the poor students in Sanskrit School.
Bir Shumsher He established Bir Hospital, Bir Tower, Bir Library, started the distribution of drinking water in Kathmandu and Bhaktapur. The ‘Gorkha dakshinbahu and the ‘Priyadarshini’ awards to the people were started by him.
Dev Shumsher He began the publication of Gorkhapatra, established more than 100 schools for the Nepali children, kept suggestion boxes in different parts of the country to hear the problems of the people.
Chandra Shumsher He abolished Sati system in 1977 B.S. and slavery system in 1981 B.S., established 50 schools, Tri-Chandra college, Bhaktapur Hospital, Tri-Chandra Memorial Army Hospital, Tuberculosis Hospital at Tokha and Leprosy Hospital at Khokna.
Bhim Shumsher He changed capital punishment in to life imprisonment and provided additional drinking water to Kathmandu and Morang.
Juddha Shumsher He established S.L.C. Board in Nepal, examinations of Intermediate and Bachelor’s level started to be held in Nepal, started the publication of ‘Sharda’ and ‘Udhyog’ and published Gorkhapatra twice a week. He is known as father of industries in Nepal.
Padhma Shumsher He allowed people to open schools and they were also allowed to keep radio, established Padhma Kanya school and college and started the publication of Gorkhapatra thrice a week. He also started teachers training programmes.
Mohan Shumsher He opened about 90 schools and started the system of civil servants to be appointed on the basis of their ability. He also established an engineering school.

Group Activities:

  1. Although Ranas were autocratic, they were social reformers. How do you justify the statement?
  2. Discuss in your group and list out any 5 social reforms of Chandra Shumsher and Dev Shumsher that you appreciate more.
  3. Discuss in your group and list out any 5 social reforms of Jung Bahadur and Bir Shumsher that you appreciate more.
  4. Discuss in your group and list out any 5 social reforms of Juddha Shumsher and Mohan Shumsher that you appreciate more.


All groups present their works in 10 minutes

Residence Assignment:

Ranas brought a number of reforms but they were directed towards their families. How would you justify this statement?


The modern history of Nepal by pitamber Lal Yadav and Rishikesh Shah, history of Nepal from the internet, teachers, parents, and friends

Presentation for the next day:

Group- D- A short skit on the abolishment of the Sati and Slavery system by Chandra Shumsher

Delhi Agreement and end of revolution 2007 B.S.

Objective: To explain the events of the 2007 revolution and its effects on economic and social sectors.


The Kot Massacre of 2nd Aswin 1903 made Jung Bahadur Rana Commander-In-Chief. Bhandarkhal Massacre of 12th Kartik 1903 made him PrimeMinister and Alau Massacre of 1904 made him all-powerful in Nepal and the direct rule of Ranas began.

Altogether 9 Rana Prime-ministers namely Jung, Juddha, Bir, Dev, Chandra, Bhim, Juddha, Pdhma and Mohan Shumsher ruled over Nepal for about 104 years. People wanted their rule and freedom and equality so; they started the struggle. Some of the major causes of the revolution 2007 B.S. are as follow:

  1. Nepalese people were well aware of the independence movements in different countries. They got the lesson to fight against the dictatorial and autocratic rule and formed a league against the Rana rule.
  2. Nepalese students studying in India were enlightened by the Indian war of independence. When India got independence in 1947 A.D., Nepalese people returned to Nepal to fight against the Rana rule.
  3. There was no unity among the Ranas. Chandra Shumsher had divided Ranas into A, B and C classes. the Ranas in C class were not allowed in the roll of succession and thus C class Ranas wanted to end the Rana regime which supported the people to fight against Ranas.
  4. Mohan Shumsher, discarding the fact that dictatorial rule had ended one after the other in the world, adopted suppressive policy. The people were compelled to revolt against his rule.
  5. Nepalese people going to India formed political parties and a liberation army (Muktisena) to fight against Rana’s rule.
  6. Ranas were totally against educating ordinary people.

Thus people started the revolution in 2007 B.S.

King Tribhuvan escaped from the palace and reached New Delhi by Indian Air Force helicopter when the revolution started and Nepali Congress was preparing for the armed revolution. Mohan Shumsher appointed infant Gyanendra the King of Nepal. This was not recognized by the people, of India, and other countries. At the same time, the liberation army captured many places in the eastern and western parts. Mohan Shumsher could not handle the situation and requested the Indian government to arbitrate for the solution. King Tribhuvan, Nepali Congress, and Ranas made a tripartite agreement in 2007 B.S. This is called Delhi Agreement. This agreement ended the Rana rule from Nepal. King made a declaration of the end of Rana rule and establishment of democracy on 7th Falgun 2007 B.S. After this agreement, Dr. K.I. Singh, commander of liberation army in the western front wanted to continue the revolution but his movement was suppressed. Some of the provisions of Delhi Agreement are:

  1. Constituent Assembly election will be held to make a new constitution.
  2. A 10 member Council of Ministers will be formed in which Nepali Congress will get 5 Ministries and Ranas will get other the other 5.
  3. King Tribhuvan will be the legitimate King of Nepal.
  4. All political prisoners will be set free.
  5. Liberation army and their leaders will have to handover the weapons to the government and stop the revolution.

Group Activities:

  1. Prepare a paragraph on the bad aspects of Ranarchy.
  2. What were the major causes of the Revolution 2007?
  3. Why did Mohan Shumsher request Indian government to arbitrate for the solution?
  4. Explain Delhi agreement and its major provisions.

Presentation: All groups present their work in 10 minutes


  • The activities of Ranas were the main causes of the revolution 2007 B.S. Prove the statement. Also write the results of the revolution.

Source: Nepal- Perceval London, Modern History of Nepal by Rishikesh Shah, teachers, friends and family members.

Presentation for the next day: Group C

  • A short skit on Delhi Agreement. Round table conference, parties, arbitrator, discuss and sign the agreement declaring Nepal a democratic country.

Political Activities between 2007 and 2017 B.S.

Objective : To explain the political events of 2007 to 2017 B.S. and its effects in social and economic sectors.


After the proclamation of 7th Falgun 2007 B.S., an interim constitution was introduced on 17th Chaitra 2008 B.S. According to the Delhi Agreement, an election for a constituent assembly was supposed to be held but it never took place. There was political instability. Most of the people were not aware of and experienced the values of democracy. Political parties and their leaders were not experienced enough about the democratic system. The government changed time and again. Although the interim constitution confirmed many civil rights, the coalition government of Ranas and Nepali Congress could not function well due to the dominating characters of Ranas. As a result, Mohan Shumsher had to resign.

After this incident, a 14 member Council of Ministers was formed under the leadership of Matrika Prasad Koirala. The government had to fulfill various responsibilities like holding the election for constituent assembly and implementation of public service commission effectively but it was failed. This government was criticized by all sectors. Dr. K.I. Singh revolted against this government. Bhim Dutta Panta, a commander of the liberation army launched the movement for the welfare and security of the people. Consequently, the government of the Nepali Congress was dissolved. Other important activities in this period are given below:

  1. King Tribhuvan formed a five-member advisory government but this government was criticized in and out so; the government was dissolved in the year 2010 B.S.
  2. King Tribhuvan formed another council of ministers consisting of 5 members. Due to the internal conflicts in the party and government being unable to maintain peace and security, the council of ministers was dissolved in the year 2011 B.S.
  3. In the same year, king Tribhuvan passed away and king Mahendra started his rule.
  4. In 2012 B.S., another government was formed under the leadership of Tanka Prasad Acharya but his government was dissolved in 2013 B.S.
  5. Another government was formed under the leadership of Dr. K.I. Singh in 2013 B.S but this government also could not last long. Thus, the government of Subarna Shumsher was formed in 2014 B.S. This government proclaimed the constitution of the kingdom of Nepal in 2015 and the first general election was held in the country in 2015 B.S.
  6. The elected government of B.P Koirala after the election could not last long and the King Mahendra overthrew democracy and established Partyless Panchayat System on 1st Poush 2017 B.S.


Group Activities:

  1. Present the following events in a timeline:

2007 Democracy was introduced.

2011 King Tribhuvan passed away.

2013 Dr. K.I. Singh became the prime minister of Nepal.

2015 First general election was held.

2017 Panchayat system was introduced.

  1. Explain why there was political instability in Nepal between 2007 and 2017 B.S.
  2. List out the name of all prime ministers of Nepal from 2007 to 2017 B.S.
  3. What lessons do we get from the political happenings between 2007 and 2017 B.S.?

Presentation: All groups present their work in 10 minutes


  • Explain the major political happenings between 2007 and 2017 B.S.

Source: Nepal- Perceval London, Modern History of Nepal by Rishikesh Shah, teachers, friends, and family members.

Presentation for the next day: Group D

  • A short skit on the government of Matrika Prasad Koirala. The government is criticized- people come with many demands. There is a discussion and finally, the government is dissolved by the king.

Direct Rule and Ban on Political Parties:

Objective: To explain the causes and consequences of the prohibition on political parties.


The first general election was held on 7th Falgun 2015 B.S. which was completed in the month of Baisakh 2016 B.S. The first elected government of Nepal was formed on 16th Asar 2016 B.S. under the leadership of B.P. Koirala. King Mahendra figured out various drawbacks of the government of B.P. Koirala dissolved the government on 1st Poush 2017 B.S. and introduced a party-less panchayat system. He banned the political parties and the leaders were exiled or jailed. The major weaknesses of the government pointed out by king Mahendra were:

  1. Most people did not have enough idea on the democracy and the fundamentals of this system. So, the government could not function well.
  2. There was lawlessness in the country.
  3. The government failed to maintain peace and security in the country.
  4. There was a lack of sufficient knowledge and experience among the leaders.
  5. The party leaders, in the government, were concerned to satisfy their own party rather than the whole nation.
  6. There was corruption almost everywhere.
  7. It was impossible to fulfill the demands of all sectors immediately as people thought that they would get everything through their elected representatives.

The majority of the people were dissatisfied with the government and they went against it. The people who used to have a very comfortable life with the previous system exploiting others got golden opportunities. Finally, they appealed to the king to dissolve the government. King Mahendra, according to article 55 of the constitution 2015, dissolved the government. He made it clear that he had taken this strong step for the interest of the people and the nation. He ordered the army, police, and civil servants to follow their duty properly and also appealed to the people to support good governance.

Although people were supportive for the time being, democracy was the popular system in the world and they disliked the step of the King in the long run.

Group Activities:

  1. Evaluate the steps of King Mahendra on 1st Poush 2017 B.S.
  2. Elaborate the reasons why King Mahendra dissolved the elected government of B.P. Koirala.
  3. If you were a member of the cabinet which was dissolved in 2017 B.S., how would you react?
  4. Compare the first elected government in 2016 and the first elected government of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal 2065.

Presentation: All groups present their work in 10 minutes


  • “Democracy is the most popular system in the world.” Prove the statement with any 4 strong reasons.

Source: Constitution, Modern History of Nepal by Rishikesh Shah, history of democracy in the world and its benefits from the internet, teachers, friends, and family members.

Presentation for the next day: Group A

  • A short skit on a prohibition on political parties. Meeting of cabinet members with the king- discussions- king blames them for corruption and lawlessness in the country and orders security forces to arrest them all and introduce Panchayat System.

Political Incidents between 2017 and 2036 B.S.

Objective: To explain the political events of 2017 to 2036 B.S. and their effects on social and economic sectors.


After dissolving the government of B.P. Koirala on 1st Poush 2017, King Mahendra declared the party-less panchayat system on 22nd Poush 2017 B.S. He formed the Panchayat Ministry and Panchayat Guidance Department and Panchayat Development under the Ministry. The country was divided into 14 zones and 75 districts in 2018 B.S.

The major political incidents during this period are as follow:

  1. Janakpur Incident 2018:

Martyr Durga Nanda Jha bombed the car of King Mahendra when he was traveling in the year 2018 B.S. This incident is called Janakpur Kanda. Durga Nanda Jha, Arbind Kumar Thakur, and Dal Singh Thapa were declared the death sentence for their involvement in the incident. On 25th Magh 2020 B.S., Durga Nanda Jha was hanged and the other two were given life imprisonment.

2. “Go to the Village-National Campaign”:

King Mahendra enacted the campaign in 2024 B.S. According to this campaign, the people were supposed to go to their own villages to contribute to developing their places. Although the idea was not bad, it was against human rights. This was criticized and could not be implemented properly.

3. King Mahendra passed away in the year 2028 B.S.

4. Jhapa Rebellion and Sukhani Assassination 2028:

Youths of communist ideology revolted against the Panchayat Government in Jhapa in the year 2028 B.S. which is known as the Jhapa Rebellion. The revolutionary youths were charged with the murder of Dharma Prasad Upadhyay, the then member of the national panchayat. Ram Nath Dahal, Narayan Shrestha, Krishna Kuikel, Netra Prasad Ghimire, and Biren Rajbanshi were arrested and brought to Sukhani in Illam where they were shot dead. This incident is called the Sukhani Assassination.

5. Timburbote Incident 2031:

The Panchayat Government killed Ramlakhan, Captain Yagya Bahadur Thapa, and Bhim Narayan Shrestha in 2031 B.S. for their involvement in the activities against the panchayat government. This incident took place in Timburbote in Okhaldhunga so; it is called the Timburbote incident.

In order to sustain, the Panchayat Government tried every possible way and killed those against the system. People like Ratna Kumar Bantawa, Rishiraj Devkota (Azad), and Jay Govinda Shah were shot dead. But the democratic forces still opposed the government programs from the border areas and India.

6. Referendum 2036:

In the year 2036 B.S., the students organized a procession against the death sentence to the former Prime Minister of Pakistan Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and wanted to deliver a letter of condemnation to the embassy of Pakistan in Kathmandu. This move was suppressed by the Panchayat Government. Right after this incident, all the student organizations jointly started the movement against the Panchayat system which was supported by the political parties. The Panchayat government could not suppress the movement and king Birendra declared the referendum on 10th Jestha 2036 B.S. the people had 2 options in the referendum- A reformed Panchayat System or Multi-Party democracy which was held on 20th Baisakh 2037 B.S. Panchayat’s side was declared victorious but the political parties did not accept the result due to rigging or unfair election. Thus, they continued their movement.

Group Activities:

  1. “Go to village-National Campaign” was a program of the Panchayat government that failed. Explain.
  2. Explain the Janakpur Kanda 2018.
  3. Explain Jhapa Rebellion and Sukhani Assassination.
  4. Explain the Referendum of 2036.

Presentation: All groups present their work in 10 minutes


  • Discrimination on the basis of the caste system is illegal. Although the law against the caste system was enforced by king Mahendra in the year 2020 B.S. through the new civil act, the problem still exists. What should be done to eliminate the caste system? Explain any 4 effective ways.

Source: Constitution, Modern History of Nepal by Rishikesh Shah, 30 years panchayat system in Nepal from the internet, New civil act 2020, teachers, friends, and family members.

Presentation for the next day: Group B

  • A short skit on Referendum. Give 2 options on any issues related to the school. Let the whole class caste their secret votes on one of the options and announce the result with a 50% majority.

Political Happenings between 2036 and 2046 B.S.

Objective: To explain the political events of 2036 to 2046 B.S. and their effects on social and economic sectors.


In the referendum held on 20th Baisakh 2037 B.S., the Multi-party system got 20 lakh votes and the Reformed Panchayat system got 24 lakhs. Thus, the Reformed Panchayat system continued. The members of the National Panchayat were now elected by the people. In the Election of National Panchayat in 2038 B.S. Surya Bahadur Thapa was elected as the Prime Minister. Some of the major political happenings in this period are:

  1. Piskar Assassination 2040:

On 1st Magh 2040 B.S., the Communist Party organized a cultural program at Piskar in Sindhupalchowk district. The Panchayat police surrounded the site and shot dead Ile Thami, Bir Bahadur Thami, and many other innocent people. This incident is known as Piskar Assassination (Piskar Hatyakanda).

After this incident, Surya Bahadur Thapa was impeached. Lokendra Bahadur Chand was appointed the Prime Minister of Nepal. The election for National Panchayat in the year 2042 B.S. elected Marichman Singh Shrestha as the Prime Minister.

2. Satyagraha of Nepali Congress and Bomb Blast 2042:

Nepali Congress started Satyagraha Movement in 2042 B.S. It was a civil disobedience movement and was a non-violent one. It was launched throughout the country to pressurize the Panchayat Government and grant multi-party democracy. When the Satyagraha Movement of Nepali Congress was in a full swing, Ram Raja Prasad Singh of Janabadi Morcha exploded bombs at different places of Kathmandu and Pokhara to revolt against the Panchayat system. Due to the bomb blast (violent movement) of Janabadi Morcha, the satyagraha movement of the Nepali Congress was disrupted and was withdrawn. Panchayat government passed a new law and punished Ram Raja Prasad Singh, Khem Raj Bhatta, and Laxman Prasad Singh.


3. The People’s Mass Movement-I 2046 (First Jana Andolan):

The country turned into a land of corruption, smuggling, and suppression under the Panchayat Government. Nepalese people were deprived of their human rights. In this background, Nepali Congress and United Leftist Front made a decision to launch a people’s movement against the Panchayat system. They had a meeting in the courtyard of Ganesh Man Singh- the iron man in Nepali politics (Man with strong determination) in which even the Indian leaders participated and promised to help the Nepalese people for the revival of democracy.

The People’s Historical Movement started from 7th Falgun 2046 B.S. Ganesh Man Singh was the commander of the movement. Students, lawyers, doctors, professors, teachers, government employees, and businessmen organized strikes and Bandh in favor of the movement. Panchayat government kept on suppressing the movement. Many people of Nepal were injured and some others were killed and remained martyrs. International communication channels also broadcasted the news about the movement which created international pressure on the panchayat government. On 26th Chaitra 2046 B.S., King Birendra called the party leaders (Krishna Prasad Bhattarai, Girija Prasad Koirala, Sahana Pradhan, and Radha Krishna Mainali). They did a negotiation and the term ‘Partyless’ was lifted from the constitution and a ban on party was released. Multi-Party Democracy was revived at 11:45 pm on 26th Chaitra 2046 B.S. There was joy and Deepawali everywhere but it was just a compromise and people did not get their complete rights.

Consequences of the Mass Movement I:

    • End of partyless panchayat system and restoration of democracy.
    • An interim government was formed among the leaders of different political parties. The main tasks of the government, besides the daily administration, were to hold the election and make a new constitution.
    • People got more rights and freedom.
    • The Constitution of the kingdom of Nepal was proclaimed on 23rd Kartik 2047 B.S.
    • Monarchy was made constitutional.
    • People got an opportunity to elect their representatives for the government.
    • Many people had to sacrifice their lives and some others remained handicapped.

Group Activities:

  1. Read the news given on Piskar Assassination and write what we should do to the martyr’s family.
  2. List out the name of all the prime ministers in Nepal from 2036 to 2046 B.S.
  3. Explain Satyagraha Movement and Bomb Blast in the year 2042 B.S.
  4. Explain Piskar Assassination.

Presentation: All groups present their work in 10 minutes


  • Explain the Mass Movement of 2046 B.S. including its objectives and consequences.

Source: Modern History of Nepal by Rishikesh Shah, Mass Movement of 2046 B.S. from the internet, teachers, friends, and family members.

Presentation for the next day: Group C

  • A short skit on People’s Movement I. Panchayat police- people-party leaders- shouting slogans- suppression. Finally, people get the victory and a declaration of democracy.

Political Happenings after 2046 B.S.

Objective: To explain the political events of 2036 to 2046 B.S. and their effects on society.


The people’s Movement 2046 started on 7th Falgun and ended on 26th Chaitra. On 3rd Baisakh 2047, all mechanisms of Panchayat were replaced by the democratic ones. Some of the major events after 2046 B.S. are as follow:

  1. Formation of Interim Government:

An interim government was formed under the leadership of Krishna Prasad Bhattarai from among the political parties which played an important role in the Mass Movement. The interim government had 2 major tasks to complete:

  1. To frame a constitution acceptable for a multi-party system.
  2. To hold a general election
  3. 2. Proclamation of the Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal 2047 B.S.:

According to the responsibility given to the government, a constitution suggestion committee was formed under the chairmanship of Bishow Nath Upadhyay. The Constitution was enacted on 23rd Kartik 2047 B.S. This Constitution clearly mentioned that the sovereign power rested with the people, parliamentary form of government, constitutional monarchy, adult franchise, human rights, and multi-party system.

3. General Election 2048 B.S.:

According to the Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal 2047, an election for parliament was held in the month of Baisakh 2048 B.S. Nepali Congress got a clear majority and the new government was formed under the leadership of Girija Prasad Koirala. Due to the internal conflict in the party, the government could not function well and the parliament was dissolved. A mid-term poll was held in 2051 B.S. No party got the majority this time and CPN UML formed the minority government under the premiership of Man Mohan Adhikari as this party had won the maximum seats in the parliament. After 9 months, the government got a vote of no confidence, and the coalition government of Nepali Congress, Rashtriya Prajatantra Party, and Sadvabana Party was formed under the premiership of Sher Bahadur Deuba.

4. Beginning of Armed Revolution of Maoists 2052:

The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoists) started their underground armed revolution from Rolpa on 1st Falgun 2052 B.S. with 40 different demands like a complete rule of people, end of the monarchy, federalism, etc. the revolution spread all over Nepal gradually. Thousands of people sacrificed their lives and many remained handicapped. Finally, the people of Nepal were able to establish a complete democracy and end of the monarchy after People’s Movement II in the year 2062/2063. Some other important events of this period are:

  1. Royal Massacre took place on 19th Jestha 2058 B.S. and Gyanendra was ascended to the throne.
  2. King Gyanendra dismissed Prime Minister Deuba and took all power into his hands. He appointed Lokendra Bahadur Chand as the prime minister and then Surya Bahadur Thapa afterward. But there was huge pressure from the people and he had to appoint Sher Bahadur Deuba as the prime minister once again.
  3. On 19th Magh 2061, king Gyanendra detained all political leaders including the prime minister, and formed the government under his chairmanship. This step of the King was highly criticized.
  4. In Mangsir 2062, a 12 points agreement was made between the Seven Party Alliance (SPA) and CPN (Maoists) in New Delhi.
  5. On 24th Chaitra 2062 B.S., People’s Mass Movement II started.
  6. On 11th Baisakh 2063 B.S., King Gyanendra announced that the sovereign and royal power seized by him had been returned to the people and the movement was ended. The parliament was revived and the coalition government was formed under the premiership of Girija Prasad Koirala.
  7. On 4th Jestha 2063 B.S., the revived parliament enforced the “Historical Declaration of the House of Representatives.” This declaration brought a lot of significant political changes. The parliament decided to hold talks with the CPN Maoists and the election for Constituent Assembly.
  8. On 2nd Asar 2063 B.S., an 8 points agreement was made between the SPA and the CPN Maoists.
  9. On 5th Magh 2063 B.S., a Comprehensive Peace Agreement was made between the government and the Maoists. This agreement declared the end of 11 years armed revolution of Maoists.
  10. On 1st Magh 2063 B.S., an interim constitution was promulgated on the consent of the Maoists and the SPA.
  11. On 28th Chaitra 2064 B.S., election for Constitution Assembly was held and 601 membered CA was formed.
  12. On 15th Jestha 2065 B.S., Nepal was declared the Federal Democratic Republic. The first CA elected Dr. Ram Baran Yadav as the first president, Puspa Kamal Dahal (Prachanda) as the first prime minister, and Dr. Paramananda Jha as the first Vice-president of Nepal.
  13. Gyanendra left the Narayanhiti Palace and started living like ordinary people in Nagarjun from 31st Jestha 2065 B.S.
  14. Due to the failure of the first CA in constitution-making and state restructuring, it was dismissed on 14th Jestha 2069 B.S. and the election for Second CA was held on 4th Mangsir 2070 B.S. the new CA has been effortful to prepare a constitution acceptable for all people by 8th Magh 2071 B.S.

Group Activities:

  1. Explain the interim government of 2046 and its major functions.
  2. Explain the General election of 2048, the mid-term election of 2051, and the underground armed revolution of Maoists.
  3. List out all important dates and their respective events related to people’s movement II and the peace process.
  4. List out all the changes that Mass movement II has brought to the country.

Presentation: All groups present their work in 10 minutes


  • Compare the people’s movements I and II. Write down the similarities and the differences between them.

Source: Modern History of Nepal, Mass Movement of 2046 and 2062/63 B.S. from the internet, teachers, friends, and family members.

Presentation for the next day: Group D

  • A short skit on the agreement between the Maoists and the SPA. Discussions- preparation of the points in the agreement and signing the paper and exchange.