History of Nepal
Unification Campaign of Nepal:
Gorkha palace, map of Nepal showing Baise-Chaubise states, P.N.shah, Nuwakot palace, Kalu Pandey
Objective: To find out the unification campaign of Nepal and before Prithvi Narayan Shah and its achievements
In the olden days, Nepal was divided into several tiny states. They had their own kings and certain area of the state. They were weak and powerless. On top of that, they didn’t have good relation with each other. The number of tiny states increased and decreased due to unification and separation time and again. Several powerful kings of those tiny states in different periods tried to unify them in to a big nation but the credit goes to Prithvi Narayan Shah of Gorkha. Some of the powerful rulesr who tried to unify such tiny states are:
- Mandeva who is considered as the pioneer unifier of Nepal, extended his territory of Nepal from Vaishali to Kushinagar.
- Nag Raj of Karnali region captured some parts of Tibet, Sinja and its neighboring Khasa states and extended his territory up to Trishuli in the east, Gadhwal and Laddhakh in the west.
- Ashok Challa, another ruler of Sinja had annexed Kumaun, Bodhgaya and some parts of Tibet.
- Hari Singh Dev of Tirhoot empire conquered the whole Mithila area and southern plains.
- Jayasthiti Malla encountered Muslim rulers and captured some Muslim ruled areas.
- Yakshya Malla extended his kingdom up to Morang in the east, Mithila, Magadh and Gaya in the south, Trishuli in the west and Sikarjong in the north.
- Mukunda Sen of Palpa expanded his kingdom up to the Mechi river in the east and Kumaun in the west but his sons divided the state in to small kingdoms and started ruling them separately.
Kulmandan Khan ruled over Nuwakot and later he annexed Kaski to his kingdom. He acquered the title of ‘Shah’ from the emperor of Delhi. Yashobramha Shah was the youngest son of Kulmandan Shah. Yashobramha Shah had 2 sons-Narahari Shah who ruled over Lamjung and drabya Shah who established independent Gorkha state and started ruling over it. After Drabya Shah, Ram Shah, Dambar Shah, Krishna Shah, Rudra Shah, Prithvipati Shah, Narabhupal Shah and Prithvi Narayan Shah ruled over Gorkha.
Prithvi Narayan Shah was born to Kausalyawati, the second wife of Narabhupal Shah. He was brave, clever and courageous from his childhood. He got all required education and trainings from his elder mother Chandrapravawati and Aryal and Joshi families. His stories related to his mother swallowing the sun in her dream and his meeting with the god Gorakh Nath are very interesting and relevant to his mission in his life later. He had marriage relation with the state of Makawanpur and Benaras.
When Prithvi Narayan Shah was returning back to Gorkha from Makawanpur, he saw the beautiful Nepal valley from Chandragiri hill and wanted to be the king of this valley. His dream to be the king of Nepal valley led him towards unification campaign.
- Explain the condition of Nepal before unification campaign.
- List out the rulers who tried to unify Nepal before Prithvi Narayan Shah.
- Explain the history of Shah Kings in Gorkha.
- Explain Prithvi Narayan Shah as a brave, determined and successful ruler.
All groups present their work in 10 minutes
Explain the story of Prithvi Narayan Shah related to his mother swallowing the sun and his meeting with Gorakh Nath.
Medieval history of Nepal by Pitamber Lal Yadav, history of Nepal from the internet, parents, teachers and friends
Presentation for the next day:
Group- A- A shot skit on the incident of Chandragiri hill
Unification Campaign of Prithvi Narayan Shah
Picture of Chandragiri hill, Nuwakot palace, beautiful Nepal valley, photo of P.N.Shah with map of Nepal
Objective: To find out the unification campaign of Prithvi Narayan Shah and his achievements
Prithvi Narayan Shah was born on 27th Paoush 1779 B.S. he married Indra Kumari, the princess of Makwanpur at the age of 14. Afterward, he also married Narendra Laxmi, the princess of Benaras. He was ascended to the throne of Gorkha at the age of 20 in the year 1799 B.S. to make his father’s dream come true, Prithvi Narayan Shah attacked Nuwakot in 1800 B.S. but in vain. He learned the lesson that skilled and trained army, proper planning and enough weapons are required to win a war.
Prithvi Narayan Shah started preparing for the war. He brought weapons and skillful soldiers to train the Gorkhali army. He collected cash and kind from the Gorkhali people. He attracted Gorkhali youths towards his army through ‘Marwat’ policy. He maintained a very good relation with powerful states which were possible threat to Gorkha. Thus, well prepared Gorkhali troops attacked Nuwakot in 1807 B.S. and got easy victory over it. With the first victory of Gorkha, both the king, Prithvi Narayan Shah and his army were encouraged and courageous. They now wanted to expand the territory of Gorkha far and wide.
The main target of Prithvi Narayan Shah was Nepal valley. He knew that without winning the small kingdoms, the victory over Kantipur, Bhadgaun and Patan was impossible. He started attacking and capturing small states around Nepal valley. He captured states like Naldum, Mahadev Pokhari, Sankhu, Changu, Makawanpur, Dahachok, Kulekhani, Pharping etc. and isolated Kathmandu Valley. He captured kirtipur on the third attempt (1814, 1821 and 1822 B.S.). Prithvi Narayan Shah got victory over Kantipur on 13th Aswin 1825 B.S., Patan on 24th Aswin 1825 B.S. and Bhadgaon on 1st Mangsir 1826 B.S. This is how, Nepal valley came under Prithvi Narayan Shah and he shifted his capital to Kathmandu from Gorkha.
After Nepal valley, Prithvi Narayan Shah started his unification campaign in the west. He was successful in Lamjung, Kaski and Tanahu. But these 3 states betrayed Prithvi Narayan Shah along with Palpa and Parbat and declared these sates independent once again.
In order to compensate a great loss in the west, Prithvi Narayan Shah captured eastern Bijaypur and Chaudandi. He also got Ilam into Nepal.
This is how, extending the territory of Gorkha and establishing a greater Nepal, he passed away on 1st Magh 1831 B.S. at Devighat Nuwakot. He is regarded as the builder of modern Nepal.
- Explain the early life of Prithvi Narayan Shah.
- After the loss of battle in Nuwakot, he got many lessons. What were the lessons? How did he solve them?
- Explain his victory over Nepal valley.
- Explain his western and eastern attempt.
All groups present their work in 10 minutes.
Discuss with your parents/teachers/friends and list out the lessons that we learn from the life of Prithvi Narayan Shah.
History of Nepal from the internet, history of Nepal by Pitamber Lal Yadav, teachers, parents and friends
Presentation for the next day:
A short skit on victory over Kathmandu valley
Regency of Rajendra Laxmi:
Photo of Rajendra Laxmi, Bahadur Shah and Greater Nepal
Objective: To find out the contribution of Rajendra Laxmi in the unification of Nepal.
After the death of Prithvi Narayan Shah, his eldest son, Pratap Singh Shah became the king of Nepal. Rajendra Laxmi was the queen of Pratap Singh Shah. He died at the age of 26 when his son Rana Bahadur Shah was 2 and half years old. Thus, Rajendra Laxmi began to rule the country in the name of Rana Bahadur Shah as regent.
The younger son of Prithvi Narayan Shah-Bahadur shah was exiled during the period of Pratap Singh Shah and was living at Betiah, India. After the death of Pratap Singh Shah, Rajendra laxmi called him to Kathmandu and started ruling jointly as regents of Rana Bahadur Shah. But after some time, they began to quarrel and could not work together.
During the short period of kingship of Pratap Singh Shah, a few places in the west were captured. The remaining task of unification was continued by Bahadur Shah and Rajendra Laxmi. When the Chaubise states heard about the quarrel between Bahadur Shah and Rajendra Laxmi, they attacked Gorkha but Rajendra Laxmi sent a strong troops under Amar Singh Thapa and defeated them. The troops also captured many states including Lamjung and Kaski. After the victory over these states, Rajendra Laxmi sent a troop under Abhiman Singh Basnet to attack Palpa. At the same time, Kriti Bam Malla of Parbat attacked Lamjung so the troop had to come back to Lamjung. Finally, Parbat was defeated along with Bhirkot, Rishing, Satahun, Dhor, Payun and Charikot.
Palpa was a very strong state so Bahadur Shah got married to the daughter of Mukunda Sen, the king of Palpa. Then he sent the troops to attack remaining Chaubise states. As a result, Gulmi, Khanchi, Dhurkot, Kushma and Baglung were annexed to Nepal. Later, he sent his troops to attack Baise states in the far west under the command of Amar Singh Thapa and Damodar Pandey. The troops got victory over all Baise states including Almorah, Kumaun and Gadhwal. Later, Palpa was also qnnexed to Nepal by Bahadur Shah.
This is how Nepal grew to a big and powerful nation. Bahadur Shah also faught with Tibet and China but Nepalese were badly defeated and Bahadur Shah had to sign an insulting treaty called ‘Betrawati Treaty’ and unification campaign was stopped.
- How did Rajendra Laxmi come in power?
- List out the states qnnexed to Nepal during the regency of Rajendra Laxmi.
- List out the states qnnexed to Nepal during the regency of Bahadur Shah.
- ‘Rajendra Laxmi was a bold, determined and courageous lady.’ Prove the statement.
All groups present their work in 10 minutes.
Discuss with your family members and friends and list out the lessons that we can learn from the life of Rajendra Laxmi.
Modern history of Nepal by Pitamber Lal Yadav and Rishikesh Shah, history of Nepal from the internet, parents, teachers and friends
Presentation for the next day:
A short skit on Rajendra Laxmi and Bahadur Shah
|History of Nepal|
|Unification of Nepal|
|Date in B.S||Events||Activities|
|1779 B.S,||27th Paush||Birth of Prithvi Narayan Shah||When was Prithvi Narayan Shah born? How was Prithvi Narayan Shah’s childhood? Who did mainly contribute to shaping his character?|
|1794 BS||First Gorkhalis attack on Nuwakot||Why was Prithvi Narayan Shah defeated in the first attempt over Nuwakot?|
|1799 B.S||Prithvi Narayan Shah’s accession to the throne||How old was P.N Shah when he became the king of Gorkha?|
|1800 BS||Conquest of Nuwakot||Second Gorkhali attack on nuwakot (First attack of Prithvi Narayan Shah)||Why was it important to capture Nuwakot? (1) When did Prithvi Narayan Shah first attack Nuwakot?What did P.N shah learn from his first defeat over Nuwakot? (3)|
|1801 B.S,||15th of Aswin||Victory over Nuwakot (Second attack of Prithvi Narayan Shah) death of Shanka mani Rana.||When was Nuwakot Conquered? Who was the commander of Nuwakot at the time of the third Gorkhali invasion of Nuwakot? What advantages did Gorkha get capturing Nuwakot?|
|1811 B.S||Shrawan||captured Dahachowk|
|1814B.S,||19th of Jestha||The first attack on kirtipur||The first attack on kirtipur but defeated and also Kalu Pandey was killed. Kantipur, Bhaktapur, and Patan has supported kirtipur in this battle|
|1816 B.S||Victory over chaukot,Naldum Dhulikhel,Gadhi,etc|
|1819 B.S||9th Bhadra||Conquest of Makwanpur||Victory over Makwanpur and the king of Makwanpur, Digabandhan Sen fled to Hariharpur.||Why couldn’t P.N Shah develop good relations with his in-laws in Makawanpur? What preparation did he make to conquer Nuwakot? Who was Hem Karna Sen? Who was Digbandhan Sen? Why didn’t he have a good relationship with Digbandhan Sen? Why did P.N shah think it necessary to conquer Makwanpur?|
|22nd of Ashwin||Gorkhali force captured Hariharpur and Dibandhan Sen surrendered|
|10th of Magh||Victory over the Muslim forces: The troops of Mir Kasim, Nawab of Bengal, led by Gurgin Khan, who came to flight in support of Makwanpur, were defeated. 1700 Muslim soldiers were killed in this battle.||Who was Mir Kasim? Why did he send the troops against Gorkha?|
|1821 B.S||Second attack on Kirtipur||Second attack on Kirtipur under the command of Shoorpratap, younger brother of King Prithvi Narayan Shah. This time also the Gorkhalis were defeated and Shoorpratap Shah was hurt in his left eye.|
|1822 B.S||Victory over Kirtipur||Victory over Kirtipur (Third attack of Prithvi Narayan Shah)|
|1823 B.S||The Gorkhalis troops surrounded Kirtipur from all sides for three months, i.e from Magh to Chaitra, and made the blockade which created a scarcity of goods and compelled the people of Kirtipur to surrender.||In how many attempts and when was Kirtipur conquered?|
|1824 B.S||Conquest of the Kathmandu valley||After the conquest of Kirtipur, the Kathmandu valley was completely surrounded by the Gorkhali, and king Prithvi Narayan Shah imposed an economic blockade over the Kathmandu valley. It created a scarcity of goods and commodities in the valley. Jay Prakash Malla, the king of Kantipur sought help from the British East India Company against Gorkha. The troops sent by the British under the charge of captain Kinlock to help Kantipur was badly defeated by the Gorkhali troops in the battle of Sindhuli. Victory over English force. In this battle, Gorkha obtained 500 guns belonging to the British.||What was the importance of conquering Kathmandu valley? Who were the Malla rulers in Kathmandu valley when they were annexed by Gorkha? What is an economic blockade? How was it imposed on the kingdoms of the Kathmandu valley?|
|1825 B.S,||13th of Aswin||Gorkha attacked Kantipur at midnight when people were celebrating the Indrajatra festival. Kantipur was captured and Prithvi Narayan Shah sat on the throne of Kantipur. Jay Prakash Malla fled to Patan|
|24th Ashwin||Patan surrendered and the king of Patan, Tej Narasingha Malla and Jay Prakash Malla took asylum in Bhaktapur Victory over Patan||How did Patan fall to Gorkha?|
|1826 B.S,||1st Mangsir||Victory over Bhadgoan Gorkhali troops invaded Bhaktapur. After three days of fierce battle, the king of Bhaktapur, Ranjit Malla, surrendered. 1700 troops of Bhaktapur and 50 troops of Gorkha.||Present the important events of the conquest of the Kathmandu valley in a timeline?|
|1828 B.S||13th Magh||Attempt to conquer Chaubisis||Nepalese troops failed to conquer Chaubise state and returned back|
|1830B.S||4th of Shrawan||Conquest of the East||Victory over chaundandi, Morang, and Kirant region. King Prithvi Narayan Shah proceeded towards the east and occupied Chaundandi, the sen Kingdom of eastern Nepal across the Kamala river|
|1831 B.S||5th Shrawan||Victory over Bijapur|
|1st Magh||The untimely death of Prithvi Narayan Shah||Death at Devighat of Nuwakot||When and where did he die? Show in a timeline important events of Prithvi Narayan Shah’s unification campaign from 1801 to 1831 B.S. Write about the life and achievements of Prithvi Narayan Shah.|
|Regency of Rajendra Laxmi||Pratap Singh Shah, during his short period, annexed Upardang Gadi, Kailashpur Gadi, sumeswar Gadi, and Chitwan.||Who was Rajendra Laxmi? How long did Rajendra Laxmi rule in Nepal as the reagent? What is meant by regency? Name any two other regents in the history of Nepal.|
|Rajendra Laxmi Shah and Bahadur Shah conquered and annexed most of the smaller Chaubise and Baisi states of Gandaki and Karnali regions.|
|1834 B.S||6th Mangsir||Death of Pratap Singh Shah; Rajendra Laxmi started to rule as a reagent.||When did Rajendra Laxmi die?|
|1842 B.S||2nd Shrawan||Annexation of Baise and Chaubise Rajya||Death of Rajendra Laxmi and return of Bahadur Shah from Betia(India) and started to rule as a reagent.|
|1843 B.S||Gulmi, Agrakanchi, Durkot, Parbat, Pyuthan , Dang, and Rolpa were annexed to Nepal. Jajarkot accepted the sovereignty of Nepal|
|1847 B.S||11th Chaitra||Signed a new treaty with the newly formed government of Kumau and conquered the capital for Kumao, Almoda, and the capital of Garhwal, Shrinagar, and reached up to Alcanda . Since Nepal Tibet war broke, Nepal signed a treaty with Gadhwal and returned back home|
|1849||Nepal Tibet war ended. According to Betrawati Treaty, the northern border of Nepal remained up to Tatopani.|
|1854 B.S||Tragic death of Bahadur Shah|
|During the reign of Girbanyuddha Bikram Shah, Bhimsen Thapa annexed the state of Palpa into Nepal.|