What is Development?
Development is the accumulation of human capital and its effective investment in the progress of an economy.
Development entails improvement in the quality as well as quantity of life.
Shifts in Development Paradigms
1920’s – 1940’s Economic cum Cultural Progress Exploitation of natural resources
1940’s – 1960’s Economic Progress Industrialization as vehicle of econ devt
1950’s – 1970’s Economic Progress cum Rural
Recognitio nofdisparityin income 1970’s Integrated AreaDevelopment
Agri-production and geographic equity
1980’s Participatory Development Reversal of TOP–DOWN approach
1990’s Sustainable Development
For Sustainable Development to happen, the world of nations agreed to focus all development initiatives towards sustainability of resources.
•The Stockholm Convention held 30 years ago. The whole world agreed on the urgent need to respond to the problem of environmental deterioration.
The Road to Rio
•publication of “Our Common Future” by the UN World Commission on Environment and Development in 1987
•Publication of the “Brundtland Report,” a landmark report establishing the need for sustainable development in industrialized and developing countries.
“Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”
Brundtland Commission “Our common future” 1987
The Road to Rio
•An “Earth Summit” officially known as the
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, was held in June 1992 at Rio de Janeiro and participated by over 170 states worldwide (114 of whom were represented by Heads of States of Governments)
Outcomes of the Earth Summit
• convention on biodiversity;
•framework convention on climate change;
• principles of forest management;
• Agenda 21;
•the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development
It was agreed that the protection of the environment and social and economic development are fundamental to Sustainable Development (based on the Rio Principles).
To achieve such development, the global program Agenda 21 and the Rio Declaration to reaffirm global commitment were adopted.
The Agenda 21 was localized based on the maxim “Think globally, Act Locally” throughout Philippine Agenda21.
Monterrey Conference on Finance for Development
Doha Ministerial Conference defined for the world a comprehensive vision for the future of humanity.
World Summit on Sustainable Development held at Johannesburg, South Africa from 2-4 September 2002.
What is Sustainable Development?
Development that meets the need of the present without compromising the ability of the future generation to meet their own needs.
What is Sustainable Development? – it is the harmonious integration of
a sound and viable economy; responsible governance; social cohesion; and ecological integrity
to ensure that development is a life-sustaining process.
Sustainable Development = Economic Development
+ Environment Protection
+ Social Reform
Elements / Dimensions of Sustainable Development
• Technological • Socio-cultural • Ecological
Parameters of Sustainable Development
• Maintaining a sustainable population
• Maintaining productivity and profitability of environment and natural resources
• Adopting environmental management weapons in policy and decision making
• Protecting the environment and conserving natural resources
• Promoting proper management of wastes and residuals
• Adopting environment-friendly technologies
Parameters of Sustainable Development
• Empowering the people
• Maintaining peace and order
• Promoting resource access and upholding property rights
• Promoting environmental awareness, inculcating env ethics and supporting env management action
• Improving institutional capacity/ capability to manage sustainable development
1971 “Limits to Growth”
1972 UN Conference on Human Settlements and Environment
1983 World Commission on Environment and Development
1987 “Our Common Future”
1989 Philippine Strategies on Sustainable Development
1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development
1996 Philippine Agenda21
What is Philippine Agenda 21?
– is our own national agenda for sustainable development.
– recognizes three key actors in sustainable development and their roles in different realms of society
• The Principles of Unity
• The ActionAgenda
• The Implementation Strategies
Key Actors in sustainable development
• Government is the key actor in POLITY, which is concerned with democratic governance and the security of human rights.
• Civil Society is the key actor in CULTURE, which is concerned with the development of the social and spiritual capacities of human beings.
• Business is the key actor in ECONOMY, which is mainly concerned with producing goods and services for people.
Business is the key actor in ECONOMY, which is mainly concerned with producing goods and services for people
Government is the key actor in POLITY, which is concerned with democratic governance and the security of human rights.
Civil Society is the key actor in CULTURE, which is concerned with the development of the social and spiritual capacities of human beings.
Vision of Philippine Agenda 21
A better quality of life for all, through the development of a just, moral, creative, spiritual, economically vibrant, caring, diverse yet cohesive society characterized by appropriate productivity, participatory and democratic processes, and living in harmony within the limits of the carrying capacity of nature and the integrity of creation. (PA 21, Section 1.4, p.12)
Philippine Agenda 21 Sustainable Development Principles
• Primacy of Developing Full Human Potential This puts man at the center of all development efforts.
• Holistic Science and Appropriate Technology. Implies development of appropriate technology to solve development problems with due consideration to its impact on society and ecology.
• Cultural, Moral and Spiritual Sensitivity. Considers the inherent strengths of local and indigenous knowledge, practices and beliefs, while respecting cultural diversity, moral standards, and the spiritual nature of the Filipino society.
Key Concepts and Principles of Sustainable Development
• Operates on the principle of an indivisible world. Environmental problems cross national boundaries in such phenomena as acid rain and global warming.
• It does not mean economic stagnation or giving up economic growth for the sake of the environment. It should even promote economic development as a requisite for maintaining environmental quality.
• SD in agriculture, forestry, and the fisheries sectors involve conservation of land, water, plant, and animal genetic sources does not degrade the environment and is technologically appropriate, economically viable and socially acceptable. (ADB, 1991)
•At the level of the individuals and communities, SD is a process focused on people and societies – how they define needs with reference to their own goals and the goals they share as members of communities and nations.
•It is in focused generate
contrast to development that on resource exploitation to
short –term health.
The Concept of Sustainable Development
• The concept of SD is an evolving one. There is no quick and fast rule towards SD because of its multi-dimensional and complex nature.
• SD is dynamic and adjusts to the changing conditions and needs of the time.
• Robert Repetto
“The core idea of sustainability is that current decisions should not impair the prospects for maintaining or improving future living standards. This implies that our economic system should be managed so we can live off the dividends of our resources”.
• Resources – all resources
• SD is an approach that will permit continuing improvements in the quality of life with a lower intensity of resource use, thereby leaving behind for future generations an undiminished or even enhanced stock of natural resources and other assets.
• Mohan Munasinghe – three approaches
• Economic: Maximize income while maintaining a constant or increasing stock of capital
• Ecological: Maintaining resilience and robustness of biological and physical systems
• Socio-cultural: Maintaining the stability of social and cultural systems
• Triple bottom line
Philippine Business for the Environment, et al. Business Strategies for Sustainable Development: Philippine Business Agenda21.
Guzman, Ruth and Guzman, Roger. 2000. Environmental Education for Sustainable Development. Wisdom Advocates Publishing, Q.C.Philippines.
Soriano, Sr. Luz Emmanuel, Claudio, C. and Fansler, L. 1995.Sustainable Development: A Philippine Perspective. Phoenix Publishing House, Q.C.
Johannesburg Summit 2002. Key Outcomes of the summit
Johannesburg Summit 2002. Political Declaration.
Johannesburg Summit 2002. Press Release of the UN Sec.General