Objective: To identify national heritages of Nepal which are enlisted in the UNESCO’s world heritage sites and be a part to preserve and promote them.
Valuable objects that reflect culture, history art or tradition are called heritages. They have been passed down from the previous generation to the present one. Such valuable objects are also promoted by UNESCO (United Nations Scientific and Cultural Organization), one of the specialized agencies of UNO. Some of the heritages which are included in the list of world heritage sites are given below:
Lumbini Development Committee has been formed to promote and preserve this important heritage site. There are 13 member countries in this committee. Today, many countries of the world have erected stupas and monasteries on the site. Some of these countries are China, Myanmar, South Korea, India, Japan, France, Thailand, Germany etc. There are research centres, libraries and museums on Buddhism.
2. Pashupatinath Temple Area:
The Pashupati area is the holy place of Hindus. The Pashupatinath Temple was built by Prachanda Dev during the Lichhavi period. This heritage sites covers the area of Pashupatinath temple, Devpatan, Jay Bageshwori, Gaurighat, Kutambahal, Pingalasthan and slesmantak forest area. There are 492 temples, inns and stupas in different styles and a thousand Shivalingas. This is the main attraction and holiest place for all the Hindus all over the world.
3. Sagarmatha National Park:
Sagarmatha National Park covers an area of 1148 sq. km. It covers the areas of Mt. Everest, Lhotse, Cho Oyu, Nuptse, Pumori and Amadablam mountain ranges and the area around them in Solukhumbu District.
Major vegetation found in this national park is Rhododendron, Dhupi, Bhojpatra etc. The variety of birds and animals make the Khumbu region lively throughout the year. Such birds and animals are leopards, Himalayan black bear, wild yak, musk deer, red panda, Lophophorus (Danfe), polar cheetah etc.
4. Chitwan National Park:
Chitwan National Park covers an area of 932 sq. km. This National Park is famous for the one-horned rhino which is one of the world’s rare animals. This National Park is also popular as we find the Royal Bengal Tigers here. Other wildlife found in the National Park are elephants, crocodiles, tigers, peacocks and various other birds. The area is famous for elephant polo. International level competition for polo is organized every year.
5. Hanumandhoka Durbar Square:
Hanumandhoka Durbar Square is located in the heart of Kathmandu. It was the palace from where the country was governed by the Mallas and even early Shah Kings. After the completion of Narayanhiti Palace, the Royal Palace was shifted from Hanumandhoka to Narayanhiti. There is a belief that Pratap Malla erected a statue of Hanuman and named it Hanumandhoka. He also pacified Kalbhairav in the Square. The famous Nine-storey Palace built by Prithvi Narayan Shah, Basantapur Palace, Taleju Temple, Museum, Kumari House, Kasthamandap etc. are the ancient heritages located within the Durbar Square.
6. Bouddhanath Stupa (Mahachaitya):Bouddhanath Stupa is located at Bouddha to the northeast of Kathmandu. This is a famous holy place of the Buddhists. This is one of the oldest and biggest stupas in Nepal. It was built around the 5th century. Besides the main stupa, there are other 45 monasteries in this area. The art and architecture of Bouddhanath have been exemplary masterpieces of Buddhists and as a whole of Nepal. Many tourists today are attracted to the architectural beauty of Bouddhanath.
7. Patan Durbar Square:
Patan Durbar Square is situated in the Lalitpur district. It was the palace of the Malla Kings. The Krishna Temple with 21 pinnacles (Gajur) is situated in Durbar Square. This is one of the masterpieces of Malla art and architecture. Besides Krishna temple, there are Bhimsen temple, Bishwonath temple, Jagat Narayan temple, the image of Yog Narendra Malla, Mahabouddha, Khumbheshwor Mahadev, Rato Machhindranath etc. Patan Durbar Square is full of beautiful medieval art and architecture which has attracted millions of tourists and researchers from all over the world.
8. Bhaktapur Durbar Square:
Bhaktapur Durbar square lies in Bhaktapur District. It was the palace of the Malla Kings in the medieval era. The heritages like Nyatapola temple, 55 windows palace, an image of Bhupatindra Malla, National Art Gallery, Golden Gate etc. are the major attractions of the Durbar Square. The exemplary effort of the people around Durbar Square to maintain cleanliness and promote the heritage site has resulted in it being called the cleanest square among all.
9. Changunarayan Temple:
Changunarayan Temple is situated in the northern part of Bhaktapur. The temple was initially built by Hari Dutta Verma and later by Mandev. Mandev pacified various historical things around the temple so the credit goes to him. The Temple is built in pagoda style. There are different types of sculptures and carvings of stones, woods and metals inside the temple premises. The stone inscription of the Changunarayan temple, prepared in the period of Mandev is considered to be the oldest stone inscription of Nepal. Image of Narsinha, an idol of Lord Vishnu, incomplete stone elephant and half piece rice and its related story are the major attractions of the temple.
10. Swoyambhunath Stupa:
Swoyambhunath Stupa is located in Kathmandu. This is primarily the holy place of Buddhists. There is an image of a goddess which is worshipped by both Hindus and Buddhists in the form of Goddess Saraswoti and Manjushree. This temple is regarded as the symbol of religious tolerance. Besides stupas, temples and images, one of the biggest images of Buddha in Nepal has been erected in the area recently.
Besides these heritages listed in the world heritage sites, Nepal has many other religious, natural, cultural and historical heritages like Bardiya National Park, Shivapuri National Park, Halesi Mahadev in Khotang, Sworgadwari of Pyuthan, Gosaikunda of Rasuwa, Kalika temple of Baglung, Tal Barahi temple of Pokhara, Chhintang Devi of Dhankuta, Pathivaradevi temple of Taplejung, Muktinath temple of Mustang, Manakamana temple and Gorkha Palace of Gorkha, Ram-Janaki temple of Janakpur, Jaybageshwori of Nepalgunj, Chandannath temple of Jumla etc.
- Draw an outline map of Nepal and insert all 10 heritages listed in the UNESCO’s Heritage Sites.
- Write a letter to your friend living abroad describing one of the heritage of our country.
- If you get an opportunity to add one more heritage of Nepal to the UNESCO world heritage site, which object will recommend? Why?
- Complete the following table:
|Heritage Sites||One Major Specialty|
|Sagarmatha national park|
|Chitwan national park|
|Hanumandhoka Durbar Square|
|Patan Durbar Square|
|Bhaktapur Durbar Square|
Presentation: All groups present their work in 10 minutes
- Are you satisfied with the efforts of the Nepal government to preserve and promote the cultural heritage of our country? What steps should be taken to maintain their originality?
Source: Documentary on the heritage sites, newspapers, ways to preserve and promote our national heritage from the internet, teachers and family members.
Presentation for the next day: Group B
- An interview with the external and internal tourists in different heritage sites and find out the ways to improve from them.
Educational Excursion to one of the heritage sites of Nepal.
The students will visit the library, surf the internet, consult encyclopedias, newspapers, magazines etc. and find out the history, culture, people, important features, conservation, ways to promote the site etc. about the place prior to going on an excursion. After the visit, each group will prepare a detailed report within a week and do the presentation in front of the whole class. After the presentation and evaluation, the students paste their reports on the bulletin board of the school for the reference of others. The project report will get 5% of the total credit in the upcoming monthly evaluation.