Unification Campaign of Prithvi Narayan Shah

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Picture of Chandragiri hill, Nuwakot palace, beautiful Nepal valley, photo of P.N.Shah with map of Nepal


Objective: To find out the unification campaign of Prithvi Narayan Shah and his achievements



Prithvi Narayan Shah was born on 27th Paoush 1779 B.S. he married Indra Kumari, the princess of Makwanpur at the age of 14. Afterwards, he also married Narendra Laxmi, the princess of Benaras. He was ascended to the throne of Gorkha at the age of 20 in the year 1799 B.S. to make his father’s dream come true, Prithvi Narayan Shah attacked Nuwakot in 1800 B.S. but in vain. He learned the lesson that skilled and trained army, proper planning and enough weapons are required to win a war.


Prithvi Narayan Shah started preparing for the war. He brought weapons and skillful soldiers to train the Gorkhali army. He collected cash and kind from Gorkhali people. He attracted Gorkhali youths towards his army through ‘Marwat’ policy. He maintained a very good relation with powerful states which were possible threat to Gorkha. Thus, well prepared Gorkhali troops attacked Nuwakot  in 1807 B.S. and got easy victory over it. With the first victory of Gorkha, both the king, Prithvi Narayan Shah and his army were encouraged and courageous. They now wanted to expand the territory of Gorkha far and wide.

The main target of Prithvi Narayan Shah was Nepal valley. He knew that without winning the small kingdoms, the victory over Kantipur, Bhadgaun and Patan was impossible. He started attacking and capturing small states around Nepal valley. He captured states like Naldum, Mahadev Pokhari, Sankhu, Changu, Makawanpur, Dahachok, Kulekhani, Pharping etc. and isolated Kathmandu Valley. He captured kirtipur on the third attempt (1814, 1821 and 1822 B.S.). Prithvi Narayan Shah got victory over Kantipur on 13th Aswin 1825 B.S., Patan on 24th Aswin 1825 B.S. and Bhadgaon on 1st Mangsir 1826 B.S. This is how, Nepal valley came under Prithvi Narayan Shah and he shifted his capital to Kathmandu from Gorkha.


After Nepal valley, Prithvi Narayan Shah started his unification campaign in the west. He was successful in Lamjung, Kaski and Tanahu. But these 3 states betrayed Prithvi Narayan Shah along with Palpa and Parbat and declared these sates independent once again.

In order to compensate a great loss in the west, Prithvi Narayan Shah captured eastern Bijaypur and Chaudandi. He also got Ilam into Nepal.

This is how, extending the territory of Gorkha and establishing a greater Nepal, he passed away on 1st Magh 1831 B.S. at Devighat Nuwakot. He is regarded as the builder of modern Nepal.